TESTING SERVICES


SETTING THE STANDARD

We offer two different testing packages that include the industry standards for coal. As with every test we perform, our highly experienced team uses today’s most technologically advanced systems for the most accurate result every time. For more specific information about our packages, or to hire us to bulk test for you, please contact us here.

ULTIMATE ANALYSIS: ASTM-D3176

– Moisture: ASTM-D3302 / D3173
– Ash: ASTM-D3174
– Sulfur: ASTM-D4239
– Carbon: ASTM-D5373
– Hydrogen: ASTM-D5373
– Nitrogen: ASTM-D5373

Our Ultimate Analysis includes various gravimetric and instrumental procedures used to determine the total elemental carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and sulfur together with the total ash content in the coal. Total oxygen is a calculation by difference. Moisture is also determined to calculate the results to other basis.

PROXIMATE ANALYSIS: ASTM-D3172

– Moisture: ASTM-D3302 / D3173
– Ash: ASTM-D3174
– Volatile Matter: ASTM-D3175

Our Proximate Analysis includes gravimetric procedures used to determine the total moisture, total ash content, and volatile matter in coals. The fixed carbon content is a calculation by difference.


SPECIFIC & INDIVIDUAL TESTS

Click through the following Specific and Individual Testing Services below to learn more about each type. For more specific information about the tests, or to hire us to test for you, please contact us here.

Wet chemistry procedure used to isolate and determine the most commonly recognized forms of sulfur present in coal; sulfate sulfur is determined gravimetrically, pyritic sulfur is determined using a spectrophotometer, and organic sulfur is calculated by difference from the total sulfur less the sum of the sulfates and pyrites.
(Crucible Swelling Number) Physical procedure used to determine the free swelling properties of coal when heated. A prepared sample is carbonized in a silica crucible and the resulting coke button is compared to standardized profiles or indices.
Instrumental procedure used to determine the gross calorific value (Higher Heating Value). The material is combusted in a constant volume isoperibol bomb calorimeter which directly measures the amount of heat produced by the burning of the fuel. Further determination of the hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen content can be used to calculate the net calorific value (Lower Heating Value).
Empirical procedure used to approximate the temperatures at which ash will sinter, melt, and flow. Coal ash is formed into small triangular shapes which are then heated under controlled conditions in either a reducing or oxidizing atmosphere. The characteristic temperatures at which the ash deforms and fuses are recorded.
Spectrophotometric procedure used to determine the inorganic elemental content of coal, coke, and combustion residues. Material is ashed, fused, and dissolved into a solution of weak acids. The resulting solution is analyzed using an inductively coupled plasma emission spectrophotometer.
Physical procedure used to measure the contraction and swelling of bituminous coals. The prepared coal is compressed into a pencil which is placed into a retort tube fitted with a piston which rests on the pencil. The retort is heated in a furnace over a controlled temperature range and the resulting contraction and swelling of the pencil is measured from the movement of the piston.
Physical procedure used to determine the plastic properties of coal. Prepared coal is charged into a crucible fitted with a stirrer embedded in the coal. The stirrer is attached to a fixed speed motor which applies a constant torque. The crucible is heated in a furnace over a controlled temperature range and the resulting movement of the stirrer as the coal becomes fluid and then solid again is measured.
Instrumental procedure used to determine the total chlorine content of coal. The prepared coal is combusted and the resulting chlorine vapors condensed into solution. The chlorine content of the resulting solution is then determined using an ion selective electrode.
Instrumental procedure used to determine the total fluorine content of coal. A prepared coal sample is combusted and the resulting fluorine vapors condensed into solution. The fluorine content of the resulting solution is then determined using an ion selective electrode.
Colorimetric procedure used to determine the relative degree of oxidation of bituminous coals. A prepared coal sample is treated with an alkali solution to extract the humic acids present. The solution is filtered and the transmittance is determined colorimetrically.
Physical procedure used to determine the relative ease that coals may be pulverized. A sample prepared to a specific size is ground in a pilot scale ball-mill for a prescribed interval. The size of the resulting material is then determined and compared to coals chosen as standards with known assigned grindablity indices.
Physical procedure used to determine the relative ease that coals may be pulverized. A sample prepared to a specific size is ground in a pilot scale ball-mill for a prescribed interval. The size of the resulting material is then determined and compared to coals chosen as standards with known assigned grindablity indices.
(Maceral Composition: ASTM-D2799 / Reflectance: ASTM-D2798) Microscopy procedure used to determine the maximum reflectance of light from organic structural components (macerals) of coals. A prepared sample of coal is compressed to form a briquette, which is then polished and vertically illuminated using a microscope fitted with a photometer which directly measures reflected light from the maceral components.
Instrumental procedure used to determine the total mercury content of coal. A prepared coal sample is combusted and the resulting mercury vapors are collected and determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer.
Physical procedure used to measure the reactivity and strength of lump coke. A sized coke sample is charged in a retort tube and heated in a furnace at a specified temperature and time in the presence of CO2 gas. The resulting loss in mass from the reaction expressed as a percent is the coke reactivity index (CRI). The reacted coke sample is then tumbled for a defined number of revolutions and screened to determine the coke strength after reaction (CSR)
Physical procedure used to determine the relative hardness and stability of coke. A sized bulk coke sample is tumbled in a drum for a defined number of revolutions. The resulting material is screened through a series of sieves. The fraction remaining on the sieves as a percentage is used to calculate both the Hardness Factor and the Stability Factor.
Physical procedure used to determine the cubic foot weight of coals. A bulk sample of coal crushed to less than 1 ½ inch is loaded into a hopper and then allowed to flow un-compacted into a box of measured dimensions. The material is leveled and the measuring box is then weighed.
Physical procedure used to determine the apparent specific gravity of coke. A dried sample of coke is placed in a container of water and the displaced water is weighed. The specific gravity is calculated from the weights of the coke sample and the water that the sample displaced.

CONTACT US

T – 757.826.5310
F – 757.827.1366
E – hrt@hrtcoal.com

LOCATION

611 Howmet Drive
Hampton, VA 23661

EMAIL US